## CSETMathGuru: THE Site for Single Subject Math

**What are the High School Math California Content Standards relevant to Subtest I?**

Since the CSET Single Subject Math Credential enables one teach High School Math, it's an extremely profitable exercise to scrutinize the California Department of Education's Math content standards applicable for High School Math teachers. These are expectations for students that every current and prospective Math teacher ought to be familiar with.

The following content standards apply for Subtest I: Algebra / Number Theory:

1.0 Students identify and use the arithmetic properties of subsets of integers and rational, irrational, and real numbers, including closure properties for the four basic arithmetic operations where applicable:

1.1 Students use properties of numbers to demonstrate whether assertions are true or false.

2.0 Students understand and use such operations as taking the opposite, finding the reciprocal, taking a root, and raising to a fractional power. They understand and use the rules of exponents.

3.0 Students solve equations and inequalities involving absolute values.

4.0 Students simplify expressions before solving linear equations and inequalities in one variable, such as 3(2x-5) + 4(x-2) = 12.

5.0 Students solve multistep problems, including word problems, involving linear equations and linear inequalities in one variable and provide justification for each step.

6.0 Students graph a linear equation and compute the x- and y- intercepts (e.g., graph 2x + 6y = 4). They are also able to sketch the region defined by linear inequality (e.g., they sketch the region defined by 2x + 6y < 4).

7.0 Students verify that a point lies on a line, given an equation of the line. Students are able to derive linear equations by using the point-slope formula.

8.0 Students understand the concepts of parallel lines and perpendicular lines and how those slopes are related. Students are able to find the equation of a line perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given point.

9.0 Students solve a system of two linear equations in two variables algebraically and are able to interpret the answer graphically. Students are able to solve a system of two linear inequalities in two variables and to sketch the solution sets.

10.0 Students add, subtract, multiply, and divide monomials and polynomials. Students solve multi step problems, including word problems, by using these techniques.

11.0 Students apply basic factoring techniques to second-and simple third-degree polynomials. These techniques include finding a common factor for all terms in a polynomial, recognizing the difference of two squares, and recognizing perfect squares of binomials.

12.0 Students simplify fractions with polynomials in the numerator and denominator by factoring both and reducing them to the lowest terms.

13.0 Students add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions and functions. Students solve both computationally and conceptually challenging problems by using these techniques.

14.0 Students solve a quadratic equation by factoring or completing the square.

15.0 Students apply algebraic techniques to solve rate problems, work problems, and percent mixture problems.

16.0 Students understand the concepts of a relation and a function, determine whether a given relation defines a function, and give pertinent information about given relations and functions.

17.0 Students determine the domain of independent variables and the range of dependent variables defined by a graph, a set of ordered pairs, or a symbolic expression.

18.0 Students determine whether a relation defined by a graph, a set of ordered pairs, or a symbolic expression is a function and justify the conclusion.

19.0 Students know the quadratic formula and are familiar with its proof by completing the square.

20.0 Students use the quadratic formula to find the roots of a second-degree polynomial and to solve quadratic equations.

21.0 Students graph quadratic functions and know that their roots are the x- intercepts.

22.0 Students use the quadratic formula or factoring techniques or both to determine whether the graph of a quadratic function will intersect the x-axis in zero, one, or two points.

23.0 Students apply quadratic equations to physical problems, such as the motion of an object under the force of gravity.

24.0 Students use and know simple aspects of a logical argument:

24.1 Students explain the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning and identify and provide examples of each.

24.2 Students identify the hypothesis and conclusion in logical deduction. 24.3 Students use counterexamples to show that an assertion is false and recognize that a single counterexample is sufficient to refute an assertion.

25.0 Students use properties of the number system to judge the validity of results, to justify each step of a procedure, and to prove or disprove statements:

25.1 Students use properties of numbers to construct simple, valid arguments (direct and indirect) for, or formulate counterexamples to, claimed assertions.

25.2 Students judge the validity of an argument according to whether the properties of the real number system and the order of operations have been applied correctly at each step.

25.3 Given a specific algebraic statement involving linear, quadratic, or absolute value expressions or equations or inequalities, students determine whether the statement is true sometimes, always, or never.

1.0 Students solve equations and inequalities involving absolute value.

2.0 Students solve systems of linear equations and inequalities (in two or three variables) by substitution, with graphs, or with matrices.

3.0 Students are adept at operations on polynomials, including long division.

4.0 Students factor polynomials representing the difference of squares, perfect square trinomials, and the sum and difference of two cubes.

5.0 Students demonstrate knowledge of how real and complex numbers are related both arithmetically and graphically. In particular, they can plot complex numbers as points in the plane.

6.0 Students add, subtract, multiply, and divide complex numbers.

7.0 Students add, subtract, multiply, divide, reduce, and evaluate rational expressions with monomial and polynomial denominators and simplify complicated rational expressions, including those with negative exponents in the denominator.

8.0 Students solve and graph quadratic equations by factoring, completing the square, or using the quadratic formula. Students apply these techniques in solving word problems. They also solve quadratic equations in the complex number system.

9.0 Students demonstrate and explain the effect that changing a coefficient has on the graph of quadratic functions; that is, students can determine how the graph of a parabola changes as a, b, and c vary in the equation y = a(x-b)2 + c.

10.0 Students graph quadratic functions and determine the maxima, minima, and zeros of the function.

11.0 Students prove simple laws of logarithms.

11.1 Students understand the inverse relationship between exponents and logarithms and use this relationship to solve problems involving logarithms and exponents.

11.2 Students judge the validity of an argument according to whether the properties of real numbers, exponents, and logarithms have been applied correctly at each step.

12.0 Students know the laws of fractional exponents, understand exponential functions, and use these functions in problems involving exponential growth and decay.

13.0 Students use the definition of logarithms to translate between logarithms in any base.

14.0 Students understand and use the properties of logarithms to simplify logarithmic numeric expressions and to identify their approximate values.

15.0 Students determine whether a specific algebraic statement involving rational expressions, radical expressions, or logarithmic or exponential functions is sometimes true, always true, or never true.

16.0 Students demonstrate and explain how the geometry of the graph of a conic section (e.g., asymptotes, foci, eccentricity) depends on the coefficients of the quadratic equation representing it.

17.0 Given a quadratic equation of the form ax2 + by2 + cx + dy + e = 0, students can use the method for completing the square to put the equation into standard form and can recognize whether the graph of the equation is a circle, ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola. Students can then graph the equation.

18.0 Students use fundamental counting principles to compute combinations and permutations.

19.0 Students use combinations and permutations to compute probabilities.

20.0 Students know the binomial theorem and use it to expand binomial expressions that are raised to positive integer powers.

21.0 Students apply the method of mathematical induction to prove general statements about the positive integers.

22.0 Students find the general term and the sums of arithmetic series and of both finite and infinite geometric series.

23.0 Students derive the summation formulas for arithmetic series and for both finite and infinite geometric series.

24.0 Students solve problems involving functional concepts, such as composition, defining the inverse function and performing arithmetic operations on functions.

25.0 Students use properties from number systems to justify steps in combining and simplifying functions.

1.0 Students are familiar with, and can apply, polar coordinates and vectors in the plane. In particular, they can translate between polar and rectangular coordinates and can interpret polar coordinates and vectors graphically.

2.0 Students are adept at the arithmetic of complex numbers. They can use the trigonometric form of complex numbers and understand that a function of a complex variable can be viewed as a function of two real variables. They know the proof of DeMoivre's theorem.

3.0 Students can give proofs of various formulas by using the technique of mathematical induction.

4.0 Students know the statement of, and can apply, the fundamental theorem of algebra.

5.0 Students are familiar with conic sections, both analytically and geometrically:

5.1 Students can take a quadratic equation in two variables; put it in standard form by completing the square and using rotations and translations, if necessary; determine what type of conic section the equation represents; and determine its geometric components (foci, asymptotes, and so forth).

5.2 Students can take a geometric description of a conic section - for example, the locus of points whose sum of its distances from (1, 0) and (-1, 0) is 6 - and derive a quadratic equation representing it.

6.0 Students find the roots and poles of a rational function and can graph the function and locate its asymptotes.

7.0 Students demonstrate an understanding of functions and equations defined parametrically and can graph them.

8.0 Students are familiar with the notion of the limit of a sequence and the limit of a function as the independent variable approaches a number or infinity. They determine whether certain sequences converge or diverge.

1.0 Students solve linear equations in any number of variables by using Gauss-Jordan elimination.

2.0 Students interpret linear systems as coefficient matrices and the Gauss-Jordan method as row operations on the coefficient matrix.

3.0 Students reduce rectangular matrices to row echelon form.

4.0 Students perform addition on matrices and vectors.

5.0 Students perform matrix multiplication and multiply vectors by matrices and by scalars.

6.0 Students demonstrate an understanding that linear systems are inconsistent (have no solutions), have exactly one solution, or have infinitely many solutions.

7.0 Students demonstrate an understanding of the geometric interpretation of vectors and vector addition (by means of parallelograms) in the plane and in three-dimensional space.

8.0 Students interpret geometrically the solution sets of systems of equations. For example, the solution set of a single linear equation in two variables is interpreted as a line in the plane, and the solution set of a two-by-two system is interpreted as the intersection of a pair of lines in the plane.

9.0 Students demonstrate an understanding of the notion of the inverse to a square matrix and apply that concept to solve systems of linear equations.

10.0 Students compute the determinants of 2 x 2 and 3 x 3 matrices and are familiar with their geometric interpretations as the area and volume of the parallelepipeds spanned by the images under the matrices of the standard basis vectors in two-dimensional and three-dimensional spaces.

11.0 Students know that a square matrix is invertible if, and only if, its determinant is nonzero. They can compute the inverse to 2 x 2 and 3 x 3 matrices using row reduction methods or Cramer's rule.

12.0 Students compute the scalar (dot) product of two vectors in n- dimensional space and know that perpendicular vectors have zero dot product.

The following content standards apply for Subtest I: Algebra / Number Theory:

**ALGEBRA I****:**Symbolic reasoning and calculations with symbols are central in algebra. Through the study of algebra, a student develops an understanding of the symbolic language of mathematics and the sciences. In addition, algebraic skills and concepts are developed and used in a wide variety of problem-solving situations.1.0 Students identify and use the arithmetic properties of subsets of integers and rational, irrational, and real numbers, including closure properties for the four basic arithmetic operations where applicable:

1.1 Students use properties of numbers to demonstrate whether assertions are true or false.

2.0 Students understand and use such operations as taking the opposite, finding the reciprocal, taking a root, and raising to a fractional power. They understand and use the rules of exponents.

3.0 Students solve equations and inequalities involving absolute values.

4.0 Students simplify expressions before solving linear equations and inequalities in one variable, such as 3(2x-5) + 4(x-2) = 12.

5.0 Students solve multistep problems, including word problems, involving linear equations and linear inequalities in one variable and provide justification for each step.

6.0 Students graph a linear equation and compute the x- and y- intercepts (e.g., graph 2x + 6y = 4). They are also able to sketch the region defined by linear inequality (e.g., they sketch the region defined by 2x + 6y < 4).

7.0 Students verify that a point lies on a line, given an equation of the line. Students are able to derive linear equations by using the point-slope formula.

8.0 Students understand the concepts of parallel lines and perpendicular lines and how those slopes are related. Students are able to find the equation of a line perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given point.

9.0 Students solve a system of two linear equations in two variables algebraically and are able to interpret the answer graphically. Students are able to solve a system of two linear inequalities in two variables and to sketch the solution sets.

10.0 Students add, subtract, multiply, and divide monomials and polynomials. Students solve multi step problems, including word problems, by using these techniques.

11.0 Students apply basic factoring techniques to second-and simple third-degree polynomials. These techniques include finding a common factor for all terms in a polynomial, recognizing the difference of two squares, and recognizing perfect squares of binomials.

12.0 Students simplify fractions with polynomials in the numerator and denominator by factoring both and reducing them to the lowest terms.

13.0 Students add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions and functions. Students solve both computationally and conceptually challenging problems by using these techniques.

14.0 Students solve a quadratic equation by factoring or completing the square.

15.0 Students apply algebraic techniques to solve rate problems, work problems, and percent mixture problems.

16.0 Students understand the concepts of a relation and a function, determine whether a given relation defines a function, and give pertinent information about given relations and functions.

17.0 Students determine the domain of independent variables and the range of dependent variables defined by a graph, a set of ordered pairs, or a symbolic expression.

18.0 Students determine whether a relation defined by a graph, a set of ordered pairs, or a symbolic expression is a function and justify the conclusion.

19.0 Students know the quadratic formula and are familiar with its proof by completing the square.

20.0 Students use the quadratic formula to find the roots of a second-degree polynomial and to solve quadratic equations.

21.0 Students graph quadratic functions and know that their roots are the x- intercepts.

22.0 Students use the quadratic formula or factoring techniques or both to determine whether the graph of a quadratic function will intersect the x-axis in zero, one, or two points.

23.0 Students apply quadratic equations to physical problems, such as the motion of an object under the force of gravity.

24.0 Students use and know simple aspects of a logical argument:

24.1 Students explain the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning and identify and provide examples of each.

24.2 Students identify the hypothesis and conclusion in logical deduction. 24.3 Students use counterexamples to show that an assertion is false and recognize that a single counterexample is sufficient to refute an assertion.

25.0 Students use properties of the number system to judge the validity of results, to justify each step of a procedure, and to prove or disprove statements:

25.1 Students use properties of numbers to construct simple, valid arguments (direct and indirect) for, or formulate counterexamples to, claimed assertions.

25.2 Students judge the validity of an argument according to whether the properties of the real number system and the order of operations have been applied correctly at each step.

25.3 Given a specific algebraic statement involving linear, quadratic, or absolute value expressions or equations or inequalities, students determine whether the statement is true sometimes, always, or never.

**ALGEBRA II****:**This discipline complements and expands the mathematical content and concepts of algebra I and geometry. Students who master algebra II will gain experience with algebraic solutions of problems in various content areas, including the solution of systems of quadratic equations, logarithmic and exponential functions, the binomial theorem, and the complex number system.1.0 Students solve equations and inequalities involving absolute value.

2.0 Students solve systems of linear equations and inequalities (in two or three variables) by substitution, with graphs, or with matrices.

3.0 Students are adept at operations on polynomials, including long division.

4.0 Students factor polynomials representing the difference of squares, perfect square trinomials, and the sum and difference of two cubes.

5.0 Students demonstrate knowledge of how real and complex numbers are related both arithmetically and graphically. In particular, they can plot complex numbers as points in the plane.

6.0 Students add, subtract, multiply, and divide complex numbers.

7.0 Students add, subtract, multiply, divide, reduce, and evaluate rational expressions with monomial and polynomial denominators and simplify complicated rational expressions, including those with negative exponents in the denominator.

8.0 Students solve and graph quadratic equations by factoring, completing the square, or using the quadratic formula. Students apply these techniques in solving word problems. They also solve quadratic equations in the complex number system.

9.0 Students demonstrate and explain the effect that changing a coefficient has on the graph of quadratic functions; that is, students can determine how the graph of a parabola changes as a, b, and c vary in the equation y = a(x-b)2 + c.

10.0 Students graph quadratic functions and determine the maxima, minima, and zeros of the function.

11.0 Students prove simple laws of logarithms.

11.1 Students understand the inverse relationship between exponents and logarithms and use this relationship to solve problems involving logarithms and exponents.

11.2 Students judge the validity of an argument according to whether the properties of real numbers, exponents, and logarithms have been applied correctly at each step.

12.0 Students know the laws of fractional exponents, understand exponential functions, and use these functions in problems involving exponential growth and decay.

13.0 Students use the definition of logarithms to translate between logarithms in any base.

14.0 Students understand and use the properties of logarithms to simplify logarithmic numeric expressions and to identify their approximate values.

15.0 Students determine whether a specific algebraic statement involving rational expressions, radical expressions, or logarithmic or exponential functions is sometimes true, always true, or never true.

16.0 Students demonstrate and explain how the geometry of the graph of a conic section (e.g., asymptotes, foci, eccentricity) depends on the coefficients of the quadratic equation representing it.

17.0 Given a quadratic equation of the form ax2 + by2 + cx + dy + e = 0, students can use the method for completing the square to put the equation into standard form and can recognize whether the graph of the equation is a circle, ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola. Students can then graph the equation.

18.0 Students use fundamental counting principles to compute combinations and permutations.

19.0 Students use combinations and permutations to compute probabilities.

20.0 Students know the binomial theorem and use it to expand binomial expressions that are raised to positive integer powers.

21.0 Students apply the method of mathematical induction to prove general statements about the positive integers.

22.0 Students find the general term and the sums of arithmetic series and of both finite and infinite geometric series.

23.0 Students derive the summation formulas for arithmetic series and for both finite and infinite geometric series.

24.0 Students solve problems involving functional concepts, such as composition, defining the inverse function and performing arithmetic operations on functions.

25.0 Students use properties from number systems to justify steps in combining and simplifying functions.

**MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS****:**This discipline combines many of the trigonometric, geometric, and algebraic techniques needed to prepare students for the study of calculus and strengthens their conceptual understanding of problems and mathematical reasoning in solving problems. These standards take a functional point of view toward those topics. The most significant new concept is that of limits. Mathematical analysis is often combined with a course in trigonometry or perhaps with one in linear algebra to make a year-long precalculus course.1.0 Students are familiar with, and can apply, polar coordinates and vectors in the plane. In particular, they can translate between polar and rectangular coordinates and can interpret polar coordinates and vectors graphically.

2.0 Students are adept at the arithmetic of complex numbers. They can use the trigonometric form of complex numbers and understand that a function of a complex variable can be viewed as a function of two real variables. They know the proof of DeMoivre's theorem.

3.0 Students can give proofs of various formulas by using the technique of mathematical induction.

4.0 Students know the statement of, and can apply, the fundamental theorem of algebra.

5.0 Students are familiar with conic sections, both analytically and geometrically:

5.1 Students can take a quadratic equation in two variables; put it in standard form by completing the square and using rotations and translations, if necessary; determine what type of conic section the equation represents; and determine its geometric components (foci, asymptotes, and so forth).

5.2 Students can take a geometric description of a conic section - for example, the locus of points whose sum of its distances from (1, 0) and (-1, 0) is 6 - and derive a quadratic equation representing it.

6.0 Students find the roots and poles of a rational function and can graph the function and locate its asymptotes.

7.0 Students demonstrate an understanding of functions and equations defined parametrically and can graph them.

8.0 Students are familiar with the notion of the limit of a sequence and the limit of a function as the independent variable approaches a number or infinity. They determine whether certain sequences converge or diverge.

**LINEAR ALGEBRA****:**The general goal in this discipline is for students to learn the techniques of matrix manipulation so that they can solve systems of linear equations in any number of variables. Linear algebra is most often combined with another subject, such as trigonometry, mathematical analysis, or precalculus.1.0 Students solve linear equations in any number of variables by using Gauss-Jordan elimination.

2.0 Students interpret linear systems as coefficient matrices and the Gauss-Jordan method as row operations on the coefficient matrix.

3.0 Students reduce rectangular matrices to row echelon form.

4.0 Students perform addition on matrices and vectors.

5.0 Students perform matrix multiplication and multiply vectors by matrices and by scalars.

6.0 Students demonstrate an understanding that linear systems are inconsistent (have no solutions), have exactly one solution, or have infinitely many solutions.

7.0 Students demonstrate an understanding of the geometric interpretation of vectors and vector addition (by means of parallelograms) in the plane and in three-dimensional space.

8.0 Students interpret geometrically the solution sets of systems of equations. For example, the solution set of a single linear equation in two variables is interpreted as a line in the plane, and the solution set of a two-by-two system is interpreted as the intersection of a pair of lines in the plane.

9.0 Students demonstrate an understanding of the notion of the inverse to a square matrix and apply that concept to solve systems of linear equations.

10.0 Students compute the determinants of 2 x 2 and 3 x 3 matrices and are familiar with their geometric interpretations as the area and volume of the parallelepipeds spanned by the images under the matrices of the standard basis vectors in two-dimensional and three-dimensional spaces.

11.0 Students know that a square matrix is invertible if, and only if, its determinant is nonzero. They can compute the inverse to 2 x 2 and 3 x 3 matrices using row reduction methods or Cramer's rule.

12.0 Students compute the scalar (dot) product of two vectors in n- dimensional space and know that perpendicular vectors have zero dot product.