## CSETMathGuru: THE Site for Single Subject Math

**What are the Common Core Standards for Geometry and Statistics for Subtest II?**

How is this different from the standards stated here: Subtest II California Content Standards?

Um, those are Subtest II standards simply enumerated (more user friendly!) whereas ever since Common Core was implemented last year in CA, the following -- in excruciating depth and detail! -- is what High School students are expected to know regarding Geometry and Statistics. So, as a prospective Middle School / High School Math teacher, it is very beneficial to familiarize yourself with the standards and expectations below.

**High School: Geometry » Introduction**An understanding of the attributes and relationships of geometric objects can be applied in diverse contexts—interpreting a schematic drawing, estimating the amount of wood needed to frame a sloping roof, rendering computer graphics, or designing a sewing pattern for the most efficient use of material.

Although there are many types of geometry, school mathematics is devoted primarily to plane Euclidean geometry, studied both synthetically (without coordinates) and analytically (with coordinates). Euclidean geometry is characterized most importantly by the Parallel Postulate, that through a point not on a given line there is exactly one parallel line. (Spherical geometry, in contrast, has no parallel lines.)

During high school, students begin to formalize their geometry experiences from elementary and middle school, using more precise definitions and developing careful proofs. Later in college some students develop Euclidean and other geometries carefully from a small set of axioms.

The concepts of congruence, similarity, and symmetry can be understood from the perspective of geometric transformation. Fundamental are the rigid motions: translations, rotations, reflections, and combinations of these, all of which are here assumed to preserve distance and angles (and therefore shapes generally). Reflections and rotations each explain a particular type of symmetry, and the symmetries of an object offer insight into its attributes—as when the reflective symmetry of an isosceles triangle assures that its base angles are congruent.

In the approach taken here, two geometric figures are defined to be congruent if there is a sequence of rigid motions that carries one onto the other. This is the principle of superposition. For triangles, congruence means the equality of all corresponding pairs of sides and all corresponding pairs of angles. During the middle grades, through experiences drawing triangles from given conditions, students notice ways to specify enough measures in a triangle to ensure that all triangles drawn with those measures are congruent. Once these triangle congruence criteria (ASA, SAS, and SSS) are established using rigid motions, they can be used to prove theorems about triangles, quadrilaterals, and other geometric figures.

Similarity transformations (rigid motions followed by dilations) define similarity in the same way that rigid motions define congruence, thereby formalizing the similarity ideas of "same shape" and "scale factor" developed in the middle grades. These transformations lead to the criterion for triangle similarity that two pairs of corresponding angles are congruent.

The definitions of sine, cosine, and tangent for acute angles are founded on right triangles and similarity, and, with the Pythagorean Theorem, are fundamental in many real-world and theoretical situations. The Pythagorean Theorem is generalized to non-right triangles by the Law of Cosines. Together, the Laws of Sines and Cosines embody the triangle congruence criteria for the cases where three pieces of information suffice to completely solve a triangle. Furthermore, these laws yield two possible solutions in the ambiguous case, illustrating that Side-Side-Angle is not a congruence criterion. Analytic geometry connects algebra and geometry, resulting in powerful methods of analysis and problem solving. Just as the number line associates numbers with locations in one dimension, a pair of perpendicular axes associates pairs of numbers with locations in two dimensions. This correspondence between numerical coordinates and geometric points allows methods from algebra to be applied to geometry and vice versa. The solution set of an equation becomes a geometric curve, making visualization a tool for doing and understanding algebra. Geometric shapes can be described by equations, making algebraic manipulation into a tool for geometric understanding, modeling, and proof. Geometric transformations of the graphs of equations correspond to algebraic changes in their equations.

Dynamic geometry environments provide students with experimental and modeling tools that allow them to investigate geometric phenomena in much the same way as computer algebra systems allow them to experiment with algebraic phenomena.

Connections to Equations The correspondence between numerical coordinates and geometric points allows methods from algebra to be applied to geometry and vice versa. The solution set of an equation becomes a geometric curve, making visualization a tool for doing and understanding algebra. Geometric shapes can be described by equations, making algebraic manipulation into a tool for geometric understanding, modeling, and proof.

**Geometry Overview**

**Congruence**

- Experiment with transformations in the plane
- Understand congruence in terms of rigid motions
- Prove geometric theorems
- Make geometric constructions

**Similarity, Right Triangles, and Trigonometry**

- Understand similarity in terms of similarity transformations
- Prove theorems involving similarity
- Define trigonometric ratios and solve problems involving right triangles
- Apply trigonometry to general triangles

**Circles**

- Understand and apply theorems about circles
- Find arc lengths and areas of sectors of circles

**Expressing Geometric Properties with Equations**

- Translate between the geometric description and the equation for a conic section
- Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically

**Geometric Measurement and Dimension**

- Explain volume formulas and use them to solve problems
- Visualize relationships between two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects

**Modeling with Geometry**

- Apply geometric concepts in modeling situations

**Mathematical Practices**

- Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
- Reason abstractly andquantitatively.
- Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
- Model with mathematics.
- Use appropriate tools strategically.
- Attend to precision.
- Look for and make use of structure.
- Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

**High School: Geometry » Congruence**

Standards in this domain:

Standards in this domain:

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.A.1__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.A.2__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.A.3__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.A.4__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.A.5__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.B.6__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.B.7__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.B.8__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.C.9__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.C.10__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.C.11__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.D.12__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.D.13__

**Experiment with transformations in the plane**

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.A.1__

Know precise definitions of angle, circle, perpendicular line, parallel line, and line segment, based on the undefined notions of point, line, distance along a line, and distance around a circular arc.

CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.A.2

CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.A.2

Represent transformations in the plane using, e.g., transparencies and geometry software; describe transformations as functions that take points in the plane as inputs and give other points as outputs. Compare transformations that preserve distance and angle to those that do not (e.g., translation versus horizontal stretch).

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.A.3__

Given a rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, or regular polygon, describe the rotations and reflections that carry it onto itself.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.A.4__

Develop definitions of rotations, reflections, and translations in terms of angles, circles, perpendicular lines, parallel lines, and line segments.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.A.5__

Given a geometric figure and a rotation, reflection, or translation, draw the transformed figure using, e.g., graph paper, tracing paper, or geometry software. Specify a sequence of transformations that will carry a given figure onto another.

**Understand congruence in terms of rigid motions**

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.B.6__

Use geometric descriptions of rigid motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given rigid motion on a given figure; given two figures, use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to decide if they are congruent.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.B.7__

Use the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions to show that two triangles are congruent if and only if corresponding pairs of sides and corresponding pairs of angles are congruent.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.B.8__

Explain how the criteria for triangle congruence (ASA, SAS, and SSS) follow from the definition of congruence in terms of rigid motions.

**Prove geometric theorems**

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.C.9__

Prove theorems about lines and angles.

*Theorems include: vertical angles are congruent; when a transversal crosses parallel lines, alternate interior angles are congruent and corresponding angles are congruent; points on a perpendicular bisector of a line segment are exactly those equidistant from the segment's endpoints*.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.C.10__

Prove theorems about triangles.

*Theorems include: measures of interior angles of a triangle sum to 180°; base angles of isosceles triangles are congruent; the segment joining midpoints of two sides of a triangle is parallel to the third side and half the length; the medians of a triangle meet at a point*.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.C.11__

Prove theorems about parallelograms.

*Theorems include: opposite sides are congruent, opposite angles are congruent, the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other, and conversely, rectangles are parallelograms with congruent diagonals*.

**Make geometric constructions**

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.D.12__

Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods (compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, dynamic geometric software, etc.).

*Copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line*.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.CO.D.13__

Construct an equilateral triangle, a square, and a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle.

**High School: Geometry » Similarity, Right Triangles, & Trigonometry**

Standards in this domain:

Standards in this domain:

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.A.1__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.A.2__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.A.3__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.B.4__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.B.5__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.C.6__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.C.7__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.C.8__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.D.9__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.D.10__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.D.11__

**Understand similarity in terms of similarity transformations**

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.A.1__

Verify experimentally the properties of dilations given by a center and a scale factor:

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.A.1.a__

A dilation takes a line not passing through the center of the dilation to a parallel line, and leaves a line passing through the center unchanged.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.A.1.b__

The dilation of a line segment is longer or shorter in the ratio given by the scale factor.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.A.2__

Given two figures, use the definition of similarity in terms of similarity transformations to decide if they are similar; explain using similarity transformations the meaning of similarity for triangles as the equality of all corresponding pairs of angles and the proportionality of all corresponding pairs of sides.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.A.3__

Use the properties of similarity transformations to establish the AA criterion for two triangles to be similar.

**Prove theorems involving similarity**

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.B.4__

Prove theorems about triangles.

*Theorems include: a line parallel to one side of a triangle divides the other two proportionally, and conversely; the Pythagorean Theorem proved using triangle similarity.*

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.B.5__Use congruence and similarity criteria for triangles to solve problems and to prove relationships in geometric figures.

**Define trigonometric ratios and solve problems involving right triangles**

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.C.6__

Understand that by similarity, side ratios in right triangles are properties of the angles in the triangle, leading to definitions of trigonometric ratios for acute angles.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.C.7__

Explain and use the relationship between the sine and cosine of complementary angles.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.C.8__

Use trigonometric ratios and the Pythagorean Theorem to solve right triangles in applied problems.

**Apply trigonometry to general triangles**

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.D.9__

(+) Derive the formula

*A*= 1/2

*ab*sin(C) for the area of a triangle by drawing an auxiliary line from a vertex perpendicular to the opposite side.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.D.10__

(+) Prove the Laws of Sines and Cosines and use them to solve problems.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.SRT.D.11__

(+) Understand and apply the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines to find unknown measurements in right and non-right triangles (e.g., surveying problems, resultant forces).

**High School: Geometry » Circles**

Standards in this domain:

Standards in this domain:

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.C.A.1__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.C.A.2__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.C.A.3__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.C.A.4__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.C.B.5__

**Understand and apply theorems about circles**

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.C.A.1__

Prove that all circles are similar.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.C.A.2__

Identify and describe relationships among inscribed angles, radii, and chords.

*Include the relationship between central, inscribed, and circumscribed angles; inscribed angles on a diameter are right angles; the radius of a circle is perpendicular to the tangent where the radius intersects the circle.*

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.C.A.3__Construct the inscribed and circumscribed circles of a triangle, and prove properties of angles for a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.C.A.4__

(+) Construct a tangent line from a point outside a given circle to the circle.

**Find arc lengths and areas of sectors of circles**

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.C.B.5__

Derive using similarity the fact that the length of the arc intercepted by an angle is proportional to the radius, and define the radian measure of the angle as the constant of proportionality; derive the formula for the area of a sector.

**High School: Geometry » Geometric Measurement & Dimension**

**Standards in this domain:**

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.GMD.A.1__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.GMD.A.2__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.GMD.A.3__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.GMD.B.4__

**Explain volume formulas and use them to solve problems**

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.GMD.A.1__

Give an informal argument for the formulas for the circumference of a circle, area of a circle, volume of a cylinder, pyramid, and cone.

*Use dissection arguments, Cavalieri's principle, and informal limit arguments*.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.GMD.A.2__

(+) Give an informal argument using Cavalieri's principle for the formulas for the volume of a sphere and other solid figures.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.GMD.A.3__

Use volume formulas for cylinders, pyramids, cones, and spheres to solve problems.

**Visualize relationships between two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects**

__CSS.Math.Content.HSG.GMD.B.4__

Identify the shapes of two-dimensional cross-sections of three-dimensional objects, and identify three-dimensional objects generated by rotations of two-dimensional objects.

**High School: Geometry » Expressing Geometric Properties with Equations Standards in this domain:**

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.GPE.A.1__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.GPE.A.2__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.GPE.A.3__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.GPE.B.4__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.GPE.B.5__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.GPE.B.6__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.GPE.B.7__

**Translate between the geometric description and the equation for a conic section**

__CSS.Math.Content.HSG.GPE.A.1__

Derive the equation of a circle of given center and radius using the Pythagorean Theorem; complete the square to find the center and radius of a circle given by an equation.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.GPE.A.2__

Derive the equation of a parabola given a focus and directrix.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.GPE.A.3__

(+) Derive the equations of ellipses and hyperbolas given the foci, using the fact that the sum or difference of distances from the foci is constant.

**Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically**

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.GPE.B.4__

Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically.

*For example, prove or disprove that a figure defined by four given points in the coordinate plane is a rectangle; prove or disprove that the point (1, √3) lies on the circle centered at the origin and containing the point (0, 2).*

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.GPE.B.5__Prove the slope criteria for parallel and perpendicular lines and use them to solve geometric problems (e.g., find the equation of a line parallel or perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given point).

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.GPE.B.6__

Find the point on a directed line segment between two given points that partitions the segment in a given ratio.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.GPE.B.7__

Use coordinates to compute perimeters of polygons and areas of triangles and rectangles, e.g., using the distance formula.

**High School: Geometry » Modeling with Geometry**

Standards in this domain:

Standards in this domain:

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.MG.A.1__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.MG.A.2__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.MG.A.3__

**Apply geometric concepts in modeling situations**

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.MG.A.1__

Use geometric shapes, their measures, and their properties to describe objects (e.g., modeling a tree trunk or a human torso as a cylinder).

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.MG.A.2__

Apply concepts of density based on area and volume in modeling situations (e.g., persons per square mile, BTUs per cubic foot).

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSG.MG.A.3__

Apply geometric methods to solve design problems (e.g., designing an object or structure to satisfy physical constraints or minimize cost; working with typographic grid systems based on ratios).

**High School: Statistics & Probability » Introduction**Decisions or predictions are often based on data—numbers in context. These decisions or predictions would be easy if the data always sent a clear message, but the message is often obscured by variability. Statistics provides tools for describing variability in data and for making informed decisions that take it into account.

Data are gathered, displayed, summarized, examined, and interpreted to discover patterns and deviations from patterns. Quantitative data can be described in terms of key characteristics: measures of shape, center, and spread. The shape of a data distribution might be described as symmetric, skewed, flat, or bell shaped, and it might be summarized by a statistic measuring center (such as mean or median) and a statistic measuring spread (such as standard deviation or interquartile range). Different distributions can be compared numerically using these statistics or compared visually using plots. Knowledge of center and spread are not enough to describe a distribution. Which statistics to compare, which plots to use, and what the results of a comparison might mean, depend on the question to be investigated and the real-life actions to be taken.

Randomization has two important uses in drawing statistical conclusions. First, collecting data from a random sample of a population makes it possible to draw valid conclusions about the whole population, taking variability into account. Second, randomly assigning individuals to different treatments allows a fair comparison of the effectiveness of those treatments. A statistically significant outcome is one that is unlikely to be due to chance alone, and this can be evaluated only under the condition of randomness. The conditions under which data are collected are important in drawing conclusions from the data; in critically reviewing uses of statistics in public media and other reports, it is important to consider the study design, how the data were gathered, and the analyses employed as well as the data summaries and the conclusions drawn.

Random processes can be described mathematically by using a probability model: a list or description of the possible outcomes (the sample space), each of which is assigned a probability. In situations such as flipping a coin, rolling a number cube, or drawing a card, it might be reasonable to assume various outcomes are equally likely. In a probability model, sample points represent outcomes and combine to make up events; probabilities of events can be computed by applying the Addition and Multiplication Rules. Interpreting these probabilities relies on an understanding of independence and conditional probability, which can be approached through the analysis of two-way tables.

Technology plays an important role in statistics and probability by making it possible to generate plots, regression functions, and correlation coefficients, and to simulate many possible outcomes in a short amount of time.

Connections to Functions and Modeling Functions may be used to describe data; if the data suggest a linear relationship, the relationship can be modeled with a regression line, and its strength and direction can be expressed through a correlation coefficient.

**Statistics & Probability Overview Interpreting Categorical and Quantitative Data**

- Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable
- Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables
- Interpret linear models

**Making Inferences and Justifying Conclusions**

- Understand and evaluate random processes underlying statistical experiments
- Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments and observational studies

**Conditional Probability and the Rules of Probability**

- Understand independence and conditional probability and use them to interpret data
- Use the rules of probability to compute probabilities of compound events in a uniform probability model

**Using Probability to Make Decisions**

- Calculate expected values and use them to solve problems
- Use probability to evaluate outcomes of decisions

**Mathematical Practices**

- Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
- Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
- Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
- Model with mathematics.
- Use appropriate tools strategically.
- Attend to precision.
- Look for and make use of structure.
- Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

High School: Statistics & Probability » Interpreting Categorical & Quantitative Data

Standards in this domain:

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.ID.A.1__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.ID.A.2__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.ID.A.3__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.ID.A.4__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.ID.B.5__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.ID.B.6__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.ID.C.7__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.ID.C.8__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.ID.C.9__

Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.ID.A.1__

Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots).

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.ID.A.2__

Use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution to compare center (median, mean) and spread (interquartile range, standard deviation) of two or more different data sets.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.ID.A.3__

Interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the context of the data sets, accounting for possible effects of extreme data points (outliers).

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.ID.A.4__

Use the mean and standard deviation of a data set to fit it to a normal distribution and to estimate population percentages. Recognize that there are data sets for which such a procedure is not appropriate. Use calculators, spreadsheets, and tables to estimate areas under the normal curve.

Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.ID.B.5__

Summarize categorical data for two categories in two-way frequency tables. Interpret relative frequencies in the context of the data (including joint, marginal, and conditional relative frequencies). Recognize possible associations and trends in the data.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.ID.B.6__

Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.ID.B.6.a__

Fit a function to the data; use functions fitted to data to solve problems in the context of the data. Use given functions or choose a function suggested by the context. Emphasize linear, quadratic, and exponential models.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.ID.B.6.b__

Informally assess the fit of a function by plotting and analyzing residuals.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.ID.B.6.c__

Fit a linear function for a scatter plot that suggests a linear association.

Interpret linear models

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.ID.C.7__

Interpret the slope (rate of change) and the intercept (constant term) of a linear model in the context of the data.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.ID.C.8__

Compute (using technology) and interpret the correlation coefficient of a linear fit.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.ID.C.9__

Distinguish between correlation and causation.

High School: Statistics & Probability » Making Inferences & Justifying Conclusions

Standards in this domain:

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.IC.A.1__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.IC.A.2__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.IC.B.3__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.IC.B.4__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.IC.B.5__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.IC.B.6__

Understand and evaluate random processes underlying statistical experiments

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.IC.A.1__

Understand statistics as a process for making inferences about population parameters based on a random sample from that population.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.IC.A.2__

Decide if a specified model is consistent with results from a given data-generating process, e.g., using simulation.

*For example, a model says a spinning coin falls heads up with probability 0.5. Would a result of 5 tails in a row cause you to question the model*?

Make inferences and justify conclusions from sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.IC.B.3__

Recognize the purposes of and differences among sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies; explain how randomization relates to each.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.IC.B.4__

Use data from a sample survey to estimate a population mean or proportion; develop a margin of error through the use of simulation models for random sampling.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.IC.B.5__

Use data from a randomized experiment to compare two treatments; use simulations to decide if differences between parameters are significant.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.IC.B.6__

Evaluate reports based on data.

High School: Statistics & Probability » Conditional Probability & the Rules of Probability Standards in this domain:

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.CP.A.1__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.CP.A.2__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.CP.A.3__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.CP.A.4__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.CP.A.5__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.CP.B.6__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.CP.B.7__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.CP.B.8__

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.CP.B.9__

Understand independence and conditional probability and use them to interpret data

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.CP.A.1__

Describe events as subsets of a sample space (the set of outcomes) using characteristics (or categories) of the outcomes, or as unions, intersections, or complements of other events ("or," "and," "not").

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.CP.A.2__

Understand that two events

*A*and

*B*are independent if the probability of

*A*and

*B*occurring together is the product of their probabilities, and use this characterization to determine if they are independent.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.CP.A.3__

Understand the conditional probability of

*A*given

*B*as

*P*(

*A*and

*B*)/

*P*(

*B*), and interpret independence of

*A*and

*B*as saying that the conditional probability of

*A*given

*B*is the same as the probability of

*A*, and the conditional probability of

*B*given

*A*is the same as the probability of

*B*.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.CP.A.4__

Construct and interpret two-way frequency tables of data when two categories are associated with each object being classified. Use the two-way table as a sample space to decide if events are independent and to approximate conditional probabilities.

*For example, collect data from a random sample of students in your school on their favorite subject among math, science, and English. Estimate the probability that a randomly selected student from your school will favor science given that the student is in tenth grade. Do the same for other subjects and compare the results.*

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.CP.A.5__

Recognize and explain the concepts of conditional probability and independence in everyday language and everyday situations.

*For example, compare the chance of having lung cancer if you are a smoker with the chance of being a smoker if you have lung cancer.*

Use the rules of probability to compute probabilities of compound events.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.CP.B.6__

Find the conditional probability of

*A*given

*B*as the fraction of

*B*'s outcomes that also belong to

*A*, and interpret the answer in terms of the model.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.CP.B.7__

Apply the Addition Rule, P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) - P(A and B), and interpret the answer in terms of the model.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.CP.B.8__

(+) Apply the general Multiplication Rule in a uniform probability model, P(A and B) = P(A)P(B|A) = P(B)P(A|B), and interpret the answer in terms of the model.

__CCSS.Math.Content.HSS.CP.B.9__

(+) Use permutations and combinations to compute probabilities of compound events and solve problems.

High School: Statistics & Probability » Using Probability to Make Decisions Standards in this domain:

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Calculate expected values and use them to solve problems

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(+) Define a random variable for a quantity of interest by assigning a numerical value to each event in a sample space; graph the corresponding probability distribution using the same graphical displays as for data distributions.

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(+) Calculate the expected value of a random variable; interpret it as the mean of the probability distribution.

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(+) Develop a probability distribution for a random variable defined for a sample space in which theoretical probabilities can be calculated; find the expected value.

*For example, find the theoretical probability distribution for the number of correct answers obtained by guessing on all five questions of a multiple-choice test where each question has four choices, and find the expected grade under various grading schemes.*

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(+) Develop a probability distribution for a random variable defined for a sample space in which probabilities are assigned empirically; find the expected value.

*For example, find a current data distribution on the number of TV sets per household in the United States, and calculate the expected number of sets per household. How many TV sets would you expect to find in 100 randomly selected households?*

Use probability to evaluate outcomes of decisions

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(+) Weigh the possible outcomes of a decision by assigning probabilities to payoff values and finding expected values.

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Find the expected payoff for a game of chance.

*For example, find the expected winnings from a state lottery ticket or a game at a fast-food restaurant.*

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Evaluate and compare strategies on the basis of expected values.

*For example, compare a high-deductible versus a low-deductible automobile insurance policy using various, but reasonable, chances of having a minor or a major accident.*

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(+) Use probabilities to make fair decisions (e.g., drawing by lots, using a random number generator).

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(+) Analyze decisions and strategies using probability concepts (e.g., product testing, medical testing, pulling a hockey goalie at the end of a game).